· Nov19th 1998 the Blue Revolution, New York Review of Books, 32 – 34.
Gladwell explains how unattractive subways were as they were covered in “graffiti- top to bottom, inside and out”. It provides the reader with the clear image of how easily crime could be committed in environments like that.
· Bratton, W. (1998) Turnaround: How America’s Top Cop Reversed the Crime Epidemic. New York: Random House.
Here we see Bratton describe to use how run down and dirty New York City is at that time and compares it to: ‘... at transit version of Dante’s Inferno.’ It is used successfully to show what it was like before the “broken window’s theory” took place and cleaned up the subways.
· Bratton, W and Andrews, W. (1999) what we’ve Learned About Policing. City Journal
Fare-beating was becoming so common it was starting to cost the transit authority millions of pounds. Not only was that but there an increase on petty crimes and violence going on down in the subways. Gladwell successfully uses the examples just to show how dangerous it could be.
· Fletcher, G, P. (1988) A Crime of Self Defence. New York: Free Press.
Gladwell uses this source to tell the reader what Goetz’s ordinary image looked like and a rough bit of his background information.
· Haney, C. Banks, C. Zimbardo, P. (1973). Interpersonal Dynamics in a Simulated Prison. International Journal of Criminology and Penology
Gladwell uses this experiment as an example to show how people’s behavior can alter when an influenced environment is created. Gladwell states: “The purpose of the experiment was to try and find out why prisons are such nasty places. Was it because prisons are full of nasty people, or was it because prisons are such nasty environments that make people nasty?”
· Kelling, G L. And Coles, C M. (1996) Fixing Broken Windows. New York: Touchstone.
Gladwell compared crime as like a fashion trend that is “contagious”. This is where the broken windows theory comes into play. If something is vandalised and left, people are more likely to damage it even more because it is uncared for and then lead to more dangerous crimes.
· Rubin, L. (1986) Quiet Rage: Bernie Goetz in a Time of Madness. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.
Gladwell explains that on the express train the majority of people avoided the four teenagers sitting down because they knew they would associate trouble but when Goetz boarded he seemed to know notice them as though he was asking for trouble.